Very early on in my work, in the 1970s, particle structures were being derived from the combined algebraic structures of space, time, mass and charge, with special emphasis on the idea that two 3-dimensionalities were involved, one conservative and one nonconservative. The earliest versions of the particle concepts were included in the books and papers dating from 1979 to 1991 in the Foundations of Physics section. Nilpotent quantum mechanics came from the same algebraic structure as the particles and the two concepts, though separately conceived, are often combined in the publications. The nilpotent work requires the algebra of the Foundations section, and first received explicit publication in 1994. After the earliest papers had laid the foundations for many aspects of the subject, I collaborated for a number of years from the late 1990s with John Cullerne, who also worked on the particles.
Some, relatively early, papers in this section were also co-authored by Brian Koberlein. Other aspects have appeared in collaborations with Peter Marcer (see under Systems) and Vanessa Hill (see under Genetics).